~KOMPUTER DALAM PENDIDIKAN KHAS~
with Disabilities and Computer Technology
with Disabilities and Computer Technology
with disabilities meet barriers of all types. However, technology is
helping to lower many of these barriers. By using computing technology
for tasks such as reading and writing documents, communicating with
others, and searching for information on the Internet, students with
disabilities are capable of handling a wider range of activities
independently. Still, people with disabilities face a variety of
barriers to computer use. These barriers can be grouped into three
functional categories: barriers to providing computer input,
interpreting output, and reading supporting documentation. Hardware and
software tools (known as adaptive or assistive technologies) have been
developed to provide functional alternatives to these standard
operations. Specific products, and approaches to using them, are
technology assists individuals with little or no use of their hands in
using a standard keyboard. Individuals who have use of one finger, or
have access to a mouth- or head-stick or some other pointing device, can
control the computer by pressing keys with the pointing device. Software
utilities can create "sticky keys" that electronically latch
the SHIFT, CONTROL, and other keys to allow sequential keystrokes to
input commands that normally require two or more keys to be pressed
simultaneously. The key repeat function can be disabled for those who
cannot release a key quickly enough to avoid multiple selections.
Keyboard guards (solid templates with holes over each key to assist
precise selection) can be used by those with limited fine motor control.
repositioning the keyboard and monitor can enhance accessibility. For
example, mounting keyboards perpendicular to tables or wheelchair trays
at head-height can assist individuals with limited mobility who use
pointing devices to press keys. Other simple hardware modifications can
assist individuals with mobility impairments. For instance, disk guides
can assist with inserting and removing diskettes; a dedicated hard disk
and/or computer network access can eliminate or reduce the necessity to
individuals who need to operate the computer with one hand, left- and
right-handed keyboards are available. They provide more efficient key
arrangements than standard keyboards designed for two-handed users.
hardware modifications completely replace the keyboard and/or mouse for
individuals who cannot operate these standard devices. Expanded
keyboards (larger keys spaced far apart) can replace standard keyboards
for those with limited fine motor control. Mini-keyboards provide access
to those who have fine motor control but lack a range of motion great
enough to use a standard keyboard. Track balls and specialized input
devices can replace mice.
those with more severe mobility impairments keyboard emulation is
available, including scanning and Morse code input. In each case,
special switches make use of at least one muscle over which the
individual has voluntary control (e.g., head, finger, knee, mouth). In
scanning input, lights or cursors scan letters and symbols displayed on
computer screens or external devices. To make selections, individuals
use switches activated by movement of the head, finger, foot, breath,
etc. Hundreds of switches tailor input devices to individual needs. In
Morse code input, users input Morse code by activating switches (e.g., a
sip-and-puff switch registers dot with a sip and dash with a puff).
Special adaptive hardware and software translate Morse code into a form
that computers understand so that standard software can be used.
input provides another option for individuals with disabilities. Speech
recognition systems allow users to control computers by speaking words
and letters. A particular system is "trained" to recognize
software can further aid those with mobility impairments. Abbreviation
expansion (macro) and word prediction software can reduce input demands
for commonly used text and keyboard commands. For example, word
prediction software anticipates entire words after several keystrokes
and increases input speed.
more details on mobility impairments and computer technology, and a list
of available commercial products, visit http://www.washington.edu/doit/Brochures/Technology/wtmob.html
Braille displays allow line-by-line translation of screen text into
Braille on a display area where vertical pins move into Braille
configurations as screen text is scanned. Braille displays can be read
quickly by those with advanced Braille skills, are good for detailed
editing (e.g., programming and final editing of papers), and do not
disrupt others in work areas because they are quiet. Braille printers
provide "hard copy" output for blind users.
more details on visual impairments and computer technology, and a list
of available commercial products, visit http://www.washington.edu/doit/Brochures/Technology/wtsense.html
and/or Speech Impairments
that aids in efficient and accurate input can also assist. Some people
can compensate for high rates of input errors by using spell checkers,
thesauruses, and grammar checkers. In addition, word prediction programs
(software that predicts whole words from fragments) have been used
successfully by students with learning disabilities. Similarly, macro
software which expands abbreviations can reduce the necessity to
memorize keyboard commands and can ease the entry of commonly used text.
more details on learning disabilities and computer technology, and a
list of available commercial products, visit http://www.washington.edu/doit/Brochures/Technology/atpwld.html
Buying the directory and/or attending the conference of Closing the Gap.
To request information, write to P.O. Box 68, Henderson, MN 56044 or
call 612-248-3294. Visit their Web site at
Contacting technology assistance centers in your state http://www.resna.org/taproject/at/statecontacts.html
or region http://www.adata.org/dbtac.html.
Contacting the Special Education Technology Center (Washington State
Public Schools) http://www.cwu.edu/~setc/.
following is an overview of products that are currently available to
help students with learning disabilities and other exceptionalities to
access the curriculum. It is not meant to be a product endorsement or
recommendation, but is information that may help the teacher or other
professional who is seeking technology for students. Please visit the
web sites listed for additional information. If you are aware of another
product or supplier that is not listed here, please contact :
student in grade five or above who is able to formulate ideas and
express well verbally, but who cannot write well because of fine motor
difficulty and/or extreme spelling problems due to Learning Disability.
voice to text such a student can:
are several programs on the market that will convert spoken words to
written text. Many of the older continuous or “naturally speaking”
programs are not particularly effective. They require a powerful
computer with more than 128 MB of RAM to work well. The edition Naturally
Speaking for Teens should be avoided. The latest editions can
work very well with the right computer and sound card.
of which program is used:
Dictate Power Edition (formerly Dragon Dictate Classic)
486/66MHz - Pentium recommended, Windows95, 24MB of RAM. Industry
standard 16 bit sound card or built-in audio system such as Creative
Labs Sound Blaster16. CD-ROM for installation. Shipped with a high
quality microphone headset.)
student can speak into a microphone, one word at a time (discrete
speech) and the words will appear within a word processed document on
Naturally Speaking Preferred, V5 or 6
requirement: Windows98, 2000 or Millennium. 266MHz processor, 64MB of
RAM, 150MB free disk space, CD ROM for installation.
note that it is much better with a minimum of 128MB RAM, especially when
working in conjunction with WordPerfect.
Pentium 133 or faster processor, at least 64 MB RAM, 128MB RAM is
suggested. CD-ROM drive and sound card with headset or speakers.
is writing aid software used along with standard word processing
software. It suggests words for you to use and provides spoken feedback.
WordQ continuously presents a list of correctly spelled words as you
type. When you see the word you want to use, you can choose it with a
single keystroke or with the mouse. You can also display a word with its
different word endings. If you need help deciding which word to use,
each word can be read aloud before you make a selection. WordQ has an
underlying dictionary of 60,000 words and contains a Canadian
dictionary. Word groups can be created called topics such as a favourite
sport or general math concepts. When you write about one of your topics,
tid words are more likely to be suggested. A text reading mode helps you
program is great for younger students who struggle with forming letters,
spelling and knowing what word to use next. Reasonably priced,
especially in lab packs.
Help Read and Write
120 or above. Windows 95/98/ME/2000/NT.Soundcard and speakers. 80MB of
free disk space. 32MB of RAM. CD-ROM, sound card and headset or
winning Read & Write works with any Windows based application. It
can be used with word processors, spreadsheets, databases, email and
Internet. It is a simple to use toolbar that “floats” on top of any
open application waiting to provide assistance when called upon.
keyboards that are lightweight and easily portable can enable a student
to use a wordprocessor wherever they work. Text is transferred to a
computer application such as Word Perfect. These are an excellent tool
for the student who has keyboarding skills and for whom spelling is not
a major issue. These compact keyboards can be very useful for the
student with fine motor problems, especially at younger grades.
processor or higher, Windows 95/98/2000/NT4.0/ME, 8MB RAM, 20MB
available, CD-ROM drive
is a powerful visual learning tool that inspires students, grades 4-12,
to develop ideas and organize thinking. Inspiration's integrated
diagramming and outlining environments work together to help students
comprehend concepts and information. Inspiration is ideal for use in
language arts, science, social studies and anytime students need to
structure research or other thought processes. Inspiration assists you
and your students in: Brainstorming, Planning, Organizing, Outlining,
Prewriting, Diagramming, Concept Mapping, Webbing. Teacher guides are
also available for using the software in the classroom.
is also a primary version - Kidspiration
handy gadget is great for the student who has problems decoding some
words and needs clarification. The “pen” scans the word (or an
entire line of text) and reads it through a small speaker or earphone.
It also contains a dictionary to assist with meaning, and will break
words into syllables if required.
requirements: Windows 95/98/NT/2000/ME (Windows NT, 2000 or ME do not
support voice commands. They read the Web only with Internet Explorer
version 4.0 or higher). 200MHz or higher Pentium processor, 128 MB RAM,
CD-ROM drive, Sound Blaster sound card, 16 bit, 32 bit or 64 bit,
microphone. One of the following scanners: Epson 1200U (USB connection),
Epson 1200S (SCSI connection), Hewlett Packard 5200 (USB and parallel
connections), Hewlett Packard 6200 (USB and SCSI connections), Hewlett
Packard 6300 (USB and SCSI connections).
Kurzweil 3000 reads scanned or electronic text aloud using human
sounding synthetic speech (L&H™ RealSpeak™). Words are
highlighted in contrast as they are spoken. This patented auditory and
visual presentation of information helps increase reading accuracy,
speed and comprehension for struggling readers.
Kurzweil 3000 you can:
is also a “read only” version that can do all of the above except
scan documents. These programs can be used simultaneously with Dragon
Dictate or Dragon Naturally Speaking.
are many vendors of the above mentioned products. Please search the net
to locate them and compare prices. DDSB has used the following sources
Science Centre Inc.